摘要：在当前全球价值链重构的国际经济形势下，产业链全球化分工模式正在发生调整。基于全球价值链重构背景，为探究区域企业技术投入对贸易产品技术复杂度的影响。利用海关数据库、上市公司数据库通过匹配获取了2010—2016年期间1 302家上市企业，3 316个产品种类，240 968个企业样本的进出口数据，从企业层面上验证技术投入对区域贸易产品技术复杂度的影响。实证结果表明：增加企业研发支出与提高企业资本密集度有助于提升区域贸易产品技术复杂度；在此基础上利用OAG航空运输数据库中对应的区域国际航空运力数据，发现区域航空运力增速明显提高了企业资本密集度对产品技术复杂度的影响，并且贸易国政府效能与地区营商环境的外部制度因素缓解航空运力增速在企业资本密集度与区域贸易产品技术复杂度的影响。
Abstract: Under the current international economic situation of global value chain reconstruction, the global division of labor mode of industrial chain is undergoing adjustment. Countries pay more attention to the layout of manufacturing industrial chain from the perspective of security, and the support for key core technologies of industrial chain is significantly increasing. Product upgrading usually reflects the position of a country's economy in the international division of labor. The stronger the international competitiveness, the higher the value-added rate and the higher the position in the global value chain. Therefore, in order to explore the industrial chain power of Chinese enterprises in participating in the competition and cooperation of global value chain division of labor. Based on the firm level, this paper discusses the relationship between regional enterprise technology investment and technological sophistication of the trade products from the two dimensions of R&D expenditure and capital intensity. Moreover, it combines the relevant theories of institutional environment from the perspective of regional international aviation transport capacity. It further explores the mechanism between regional enterprise technology investment and technological sophistication of the trade products.In order to empirically test the above research process, this paper uses the customs database and listed company database to match the obtaining during 2010 to 2016, 1302 listed companies, 3316 product categories, 240968 samples of the import and export data, from the firm level verification technology investment's impact on regional technological sophistication of the trade products. Further using the aviation load index of regional international flights in OAG database, this paper discusses the impact of regional international aviation capacity growth on the relationship between enterprise R&D expenditure and the regional technological sophistication of the trade products. On this basis, this paper further uses the business environment data of the World Bank and the global governance index(WGI) to explore the regulation mechanism of the government efficiency and business environment of trading countries. The findings: the R&D expenditure and capital intensity of enterprises help to improve the technological sophistication of the trade products. The increase of regional aviation capacity growth can strengthen the impact of enterprise capital intensity on the technological sophistication of the trade products. The government efficiency and business environment of trading countries slow down the impact of the growth of aviation transport capacity on the capital intensity of enterprises and the technological sophistication of the trade products. The results show that enterprises with higher R&D expenditure have less influence on their products by external factors and lower willingness to absorb foreign knowledge, while enterprises with higher capital intensity can promote the upgrading of their industrial structure and enhance the regional technological sophistication of the trade products when participating in the international division of products. In the context of "dual circulation", the advantages of aviation in international connectivity promote the improvement of regional opening to the outside world, facilitate the exchange of knowledge and technology, and promote the innovation ability of local enterprises. Thus, it reduces the dependence on import and export and promote the improvement of the technical level of trade products. From the perspective of external institutional environmental factors, the impact of government efficiency and business environment quality on trade promotion effect is greater than that on technology spillover and enterprise innovation effect.The research conclusion is helpful to give play to the important guarantee role of civil aviation transportation service in promoting the construction of“dual circulation”development pattern under the environment of supply chain reconstruction. While optimizing the free and convenient factor flow and allocation measures of trade and investment, scientifically deploy and plan the aviation transport capacity, fully develop and utilize the regional international air transport resources.Through the close combination of airline network and industrial economy, promote the development of relevant industries,and then drive economic growth. Through the development of the potential of domestic demand, further connect the two markets and resources at home and abroad to promote the optimization and transformation of industry. Give play to the existing mechanism of collaborative reconstruction of industrial chain; improve the ability of knowledge and technology transfer and absorption of enterprises, and gradually transition from export-oriented economic structure to inward oriented economic structure, to ease the constraints of the world economic environment caused by trade friction on China's economic development.In the future, we can collect data on transnational technical cooperation of enterprises, absorption and transfer of intellectual resources, protection of intellectual property rights and other data through large-scale research and interviews, to break through the limitations of existing databases for obtaining data, expand research samples, and continue in-depth discussion based on this study.
Key words: technology investment;international aviation capacity; technological sophistication of the trade products; global value chain