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【论文速递】基于前沿生物技术主观不确定性风险的研究

【论文速递】基于前沿生物技术主观不确定性风险的研究

  • 分类:热点话题
  • 作者:廉思秋,高山行,郝志阳
  • 来源:
  • 发布时间:2022-06-20 15:10
  • 访问量:

【概要描述】

【论文速递】基于前沿生物技术主观不确定性风险的研究

【概要描述】

  • 分类:热点话题
  • 作者:廉思秋,高山行,郝志阳
  • 来源:
  • 发布时间:2022-06-20 15:10
  • 访问量:
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摘要:技术风险的主观不确定性主要来源于相关主体不同的利益或价值追求。前沿生物技术较高的主观不确定性在其社会扩散过程中容易被级联放大,进而埋下风险隐患。对此,文章基于Oxitec公司转基因伊蚊技术环境释放试验的案例研究,探究了前沿生物技术主观不确定性风险产生的源头与过程。研究发现:(1)技术本身的不确定性是风险争议产生的起点,主要通过科学家之间的相互博弈产生;(2)技术研发机构是技术不确定性向社会扩散的过渡点,焦点机构与其他主体之间由于价值追求的冲突而产生相关争议;(3)制度环境决定着技术不确定性扩散的方向,不完善的制度设计与制度执行容易导致对各主体利益保护的失衡。文章拓展并丰富了技术风险管理的理论研究,对实践中前沿生物技术的风险防范也具有一定的指导意义。

 

关键词:前沿生物技术;主观不确定性;风险

 

Abstract: The subjective uncertainty risks of high technology mainly come from different interests or value pursuits of various stakeholders. When it regards to the cutting-edge biotechnology, it exhibits a high level of subjective uncertainty and is more likely be amplified during institutional spreading processes. Due to different concerns, relevant stakeholders may have difficulties in understanding certain technology ideas and some core technological information may even be modified while being spreading. Based on this, it appears possible to cause a series of threats as to the technology development, human health, environment and so on. Recently, biotechnology's risks have gained much attention both in academia and public. In order to explore the mechanisms of how biotechnology's subjective uncertainty arises, reveal the uncertainty distribution processes and figure out the potential corresponding risks, this paper employs the risks' amplification perspective and attempts to investigate the cutting-edge biotechnology's risk sources and distribution processes. To take more details into account and improve results' validity, a method of case study of open release experiment of genetically modified mosquitoes by Oxitec has been adopted. Data from academic papers, interviews with related scientists and third-party platforms have been collected and analyzed. Based on the results, three major conclusions are abstracted and displayed as follows:(1) the subjective uncertainty is mainly generated from the technology per se during the initial researching period. The major stakeholders engaged in this stage include both technology-related researchers and independent scientists from different researching domains. Because of their various knowledge backgrounds and attitudes towards risks, there gradually arises different disputes among scientists.(2) The focal organizations play a key role of bridging labs with society. Based on this linkage, specialized technologies become widely exposed in the public. Nonetheless, there exists some barriers for the public to understand the relevant expertise knowledge. As a result, given focal firms' incentives of speeding up the technological commercialization process, it provides possibilities for organizations to conduct opportunistic behaviors by taking advantages of the information asymmetries.(3) Social institutional designs and implementation determine subjective uncertainty's spreading directions. Institutional framework demonstrates patterns regarding interests and responsibilities allocation among participants. Improper institutional designs result in loose regulations over technological risks' prevention and control. As a consequence, some potential technological threats may eventually be ignored. Meantime relatively lax institutional implementation also inhibits some stakeholders' power of discourse, focal firms' radical attitudes are thus been encouraged. Based on these theoretical conclusions, this paper finally proposes some institutional approaches to better manage subjective uncertainties from perspectives of independent scientists' discourse power, institutional supervision systems and communication mechanisms among the public. In summary, especially during the covid-19 pandemic, this paper decides to respond to the recently rising concerns about pros and cons of cutting-edge biotechnology's development. Meanwhile, this paper also takes further steps into investigating the integrated characteristics of cutting-edge biotechnology and the theory of technological risk management. Through bringing stakeholders' roles into the theoretical analysis, this paper not only expands the research of technological risk management, but also enriches the corresponding managerial implications and highlights the significance for the prevention of frontier biotechnology risks in the long run.

 

Key words: cutting-edge Biotechnology; subjective uncertainty; risks

 

文章作者:廉思秋,高山行,郝志阳

作者单位:西安交通大学管理学院

全文已刊发在《科学学研究》2022年第5期

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